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    تمرين 1: الكيمياء (7 نقط)

    الجزء الأول :التحليل الكهربائي لمحلول كلورور النيكل II

    للتحليل الكهربائي تطبيقات متعددة في المجال الصناعي ، منها تحضير بعض الفلزات وبعض الغازات يهدف هذا التمرين إلى تحضير فلز النيكل بواسطة تقنية التحليل الكهربائي.

    معطيات:

    الكتلة المولية للنيكل: M(Ni)=58,7g.mo l 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamytaiaacI cacaWGobGaamyAaiaacMcacqGH9aqpcaaI1aGaaGioaiaacYcacaaI 3aGaam4zaiaac6cacaWGTbGaam4BaiaadYgadaahaaWcbeqaaiabgk HiTiaaigdaaaaaaa@4425@  

    - ثابتة فرادي: 1F= 9,65.10 4 C.mo l 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGymaiaadA eacqGH9aqpcaaI5aGaaiilaiaaiAdacaaI1aGaaiOlaiaaigdacaaI WaWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaI0aaaaOGaam4qaiaac6cacaWGTbGaam4Bai aadYgadaahaaWcbeqaaiabgkHiTiaaigdaaaaaaa@44B7@  

    لتحضير فلز النيكل ، ننجز التحليل الكهربائي لمحلول كلورور النيكلII N i (aq) 2+ +2C l (aq) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOtaiaadM gadaqhaaWcbaGaaiikaiaadggacaWGXbGaaiykaaqaaiaaikdacqGH RaWkaaGccqGHRaWkcaaIYaGaam4qaiaadYgadaqhaaWcbaGaaiikai aadggacaWGXbGaaiykaaqaaiabgkHiTaaaaaa@4468@  .

    نضع هذا المحلول في محلل كهربائي على شكل U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyvaaaa@36D1@  ونمرر تيارا كهربائيا مستمرا ، شدته ثابتة I=0,5A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamysaiabg2 da9iaaicdacaGGSaGaaGynaiaadgeaaaa@3ABA@  ، بين إلكترودين مغمورين في المحلول لمدة ساعة واحدة ( Δt=1h ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaeWaaeaacq qHuoarcaWG0bGaeyypa0JaaGymaiaadIgaaiaawIcacaGLPaaaaaa@3C8D@ .

    تتكون الكاثود من البلاتين وتتكون الأنود من الغرافيت.

    نلاحظ ، خلال عملية التحليل الكهربائي ، توضع النيكل على الكاثود و تكوّن ثنائي الكلور بجوار الأنود.

    1 - حدّد المزدوجتين مختزل / مؤكسد المتدخلتين في هذا التحليل الكهربائي .

    2 - ا كتب معادلة التفاعل عند كل إلكترود والمعادلة الحصيلة المنمذجة للتحول الحاصل .

    3 -  أوجد الكتلة m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyBaaaa@36E9@  لفلز النيكل المتوضع .

     

    الجزء الثاني : تفاعل حمض الميثانويك مع الماء وتحضير ميثانوات الإيثيل

    يستعمل ميثانوات الإيثيل HCOO C 2 H 5 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamisaiaado eacaWGpbGaam4taiaadoeadaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccaWGibWa aSbaaSqaaiaaiwdaaeqaaaaa@3CA6@  كمادة مذيبة للشحوم و لمشتقات السيليلوز ، كما يستعمل في الصناعة الغذائية كمادة تضفي نكهة التوت على الأطعمة المصنّعة.

    يحضر ميثانوات الإيثيل في المختبر بتفاعل حمض الميثانويك HCOOH MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamisaiaado eacaWGpbGaam4taiaadIeaaaa@3A01@  مع الإيثانول .

    1 - دراسة تفاعل حمض الميثانويك مع الماء :

    نعتبر محلولا مائيا ، حجمه V MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOvaaaa@36D2@  ، لحمض الميثانويك تركيزه المولي C=5,0mol m 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4qaiabg2 da9iaaiwdacaGGSaGaaGimaiaad2gacaWGVbGaamiBaiaaykW7caWG TbWaaWbaaSqabeaacqGHsislcaaIZaaaaaaa@4119@  نقيس موصلية هذا

    المحلول عند درجة الحرارة 25°C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOmaiaaiw dacqGHWcaScaWGdbaaaa@3A26@  فنجد σ= 4,0.10 2 S m 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4WdmNaey ypa0JaaGinaiaacYcacaaIWaGaaiOlaiaaigdacaaIWaWaaWbaaSqa beaacqGHsislcaaIYaaaaOGaam4uaiaad2gadaahaaWcbeqaaiabgk HiTiaaigdaaaaaaa@428E@  .

    معطيات:

    - تعبير الموصلية σ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4Wdmhaaa@37BA@  لمحلول مائي هو: σ= i λ i [ X i ] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4WdmNaey ypa0ZaaabuaeaacqaH7oaBdaWgaaWcbaGaamyAaaqabaaabaGaamyA aaqab0GaeyyeIuoakmaadmaabaGaamiwamaaBaaaleaacaWGPbaabe aaaOGaay5waiaaw2faaaaa@4291@  حيث [ X i ] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaamWaaeaaca WGybWaaSbaaSqaaiaadMgaaeqaaaGccaGLBbGaayzxaaaaaa@39EA@  التركيز المولي الفعلي لكل نوع أيوني i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyAaaaa@36E5@  متواجد في المحلول و λ i MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4UdW2aaS baaSqaaiaadMgaaeqaaaaa@38C5@  موصليته المولية الأيونية.

    λ HCO O = 5,46.10 3 S.m.mo l 1 λ H 3 O + = 35,0.10 3 S. m 2 mo l 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaacqaH7o aBdaWgaaWcbaGaamisaiaadoeacaWGpbGaam4tamaaCaaameqabaGa eyOeI0caaaWcbeaakiabg2da9iaaiwdacaGGSaGaaGinaiaaiAdaca GGUaGaaGymaiaaicdadaahaaWcbeqaaiabgkHiTiaaiodaaaGccaWG tbGaaiOlaiaad2gacaGGUaGaamyBaiaad+gacaWGSbWaaWbaaSqabe aacqGHsislcaaIXaaaaaGcbaGaeq4UdW2aaSbaaSqaaiaadIeadaWg aaadbaGaaG4maaqabaWccaWGpbWaaWbaaWqabeaacqGHRaWkaaaale qaaOGaeyypa0JaaG4maiaaiwdacaGGSaGaaGimaiaac6cacaaIXaGa aGimamaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOeI0IaaG4maaaakiaadofacaGGUaGaam yBamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaad2gacaWGVbGaamiBamaaCaaa leqabaGaeyOeI0IaaGymaaaaaaaa@61D4@  

    - نهمل تأثير الأيونات H O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamisaiaad+ eadaahaaWcbeqaaiabgkHiTaaaaaa@38B2@  على موصلية المحلول .

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 أنشئ الجدول الوصفي لتقدم تفاعل حمض الميثانويك مع الماء .

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 أوجد تعبير نسبة التقدم النهائي τ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiXdqhaaa@37BC@  بدلالة σ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4Wdmhaaa@37BA@  و λ HCO O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4UdW2aaS baaSqaaiaadIeacaWGdbGaam4taiaad+eadaahaaadbeqaaiabgkHi TaaaaSqabaaaaa@3C3A@  و λ H 3 O + MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeq4UdW2aaS baaSqaaiaadIeadaWgaaadbaGaaG4maaqabaWccaWGpbWaaWbaaWqa beaacqGHRaWkaaaaleqaaaaa@3B88@  و C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4qaaaa@36BF@ . احسب τ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiXdqhaaa@37BC@ .

    3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 حدد قيمة pH MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiCaiaadI eaaaa@37B9@  هذا المحلول المائي .

    4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 أوجد قيمة p K A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiCaiaadU eadaWgaaWcbaGaamyqaaqabaaaaa@38AE@  للمزدوجة HCOO H (aq) /HCO O (aq) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamisaiaado eacaWGpbGaam4taiaadIeadaWgaaWcbaGaaiikaiaadggacaWGXbGa aiykaaqabaGccaGGVaGaamisaiaadoeacaWGpbGaam4tamaaDaaale aacaGGOaGaamyyaiaadghacaGGPaaabaGaeyOeI0caaaaa@45AB@

     

    2 - تحضير ميثانوات الإيثيل :

    نصب في حوجلة كمية المادة n 0 =100mmol MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaakiabg2da9iaaigdacaaIWaGaaGimaiaaykW7 caWGTbGaamyBaiaad+gacaWGSbaaaa@4063@  من حمض الميثانويك ونضعها داخل حمام مريم

    درجة حرارته ثابتة ثم نضيف إليها كمية المادة n MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBaaaa@36EA@  من الإيتانول حيث n= n 0 =100mmol MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBaiabg2 da9iaad6gadaWgaaWcbaGaaGimaaqabaGccqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaaGim aiaaicdacaaMc8UaamyBaiaad2gacaWGVbGaamiBaaaa@425C@  و بعض القطرات من حمض الكبريتيك المركز ، فنحصل على خليط حجمه ثابت V=25mL MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOvaiabg2 da9iaaikdacaaI1aGaamyBaiaadYeaaaa@3B16@  .

    نتتبع تطور التقدم x MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEaaaa@36F4@  للتفاعل الحاصل بدلالة الزمن فنحصل على المنحنى أسفله

     

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 أكتب، باستعمال الصيغ نصف المنشورة ، المعادلة الكيميائية المنمذجة للتحول الحاصل .

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 ما هو دور حمض الكبريتيك المركز المضاف؟

    3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 حدد التقدم x éq MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEamaaBa aaleaacaWGPdGaamyCaaqabaaaaa@3984@  للتفاعل عند التوازن و زمن نصف التفاعل t 1/2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiDamaaBa aaleaacaaIXaGaai4laiaaikdaaeqaaaaa@3946@ .

    4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 يمثل المستقيم (T) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiaads facaGGPaaaaa@3829@  المماس للمنحنى عند اللحظة t=20min MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiDaiabg2 da9iaaikdacaaIWaGaciyBaiaacMgacaGGUbaaaa@3C3E@ ، ا حسب بالوحدة mol. L 1 . min 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyBaiaad+ gacaWGSbGaaiOlaiaadYeadaahaaWcbeqaaiabgkHiTiaaigdaaaGc caGGUaGaciyBaiaacMgacaGGUbWaaWbaaSqabeaacqGHsislcaaIXa aaaaaa@4189@  قيمة السرعة الحجمية v MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamODaaaa@36F2@  للتفاعل عند هذه اللحظة.

    5 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 أوجد قيمة ثابتة التوازن K MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4saaaa@36C7@  لهذا التفاعل.

    6 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 نمزج، في نفس الظروف التجريبية السابقة، كمية المادة n 1 =150mmol MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBamaaBa aaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabg2da9iaaigdacaaI1aGaaGimaiaaykW7 caWGTbGaamyBaiaad+gacaWGSbaaaa@4069@  من حمض الميثانويك مع كمية المادة n 2 =100mmol MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOBamaaBa aaleaacaaIYaaabeaakiabg2da9iaaigdacaaIWaGaaGimaiaad2ga caWGTbGaam4BaiaadYgaaaa@3EDA@  من الإيثانول.

    تحقق أن القيمة الجديدة لتقدم التفاعل عند التوازن هي x éq ' =78,5mmol MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiEamaaDa aaleaacaWGPdGaamyCaaqaaiaacEcaaaGccqGH9aqpcaaI3aGaaGio aiaacYcacaaI1aGaamyBaiaad2gacaWGVbGaamiBaaaa@41FB@  

    الفيزياء (13 نقطة)

     تمرين 2: التحولات النووية (2,5 نقط)

    نقلت وسائل الإعلام التي غطت الكارثة النووية لمحطة فوكوشيما اليابانية يوم 11 مارس 2011 ، أن معدلات التلوث بالإشعاع النووي الذي أصاب المواد الغذائية قد تجاوز في بعض الأحيان 10 مرات المعدلات المسموح بها ؛ فعلى سبيل المثال تراوح النشاط الإشعاعي لليود 131 في السبانخ بين 6100Bq MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOnaiaaig dacaaIWaGaaGimaiaaykW7caWGcbGaamyCaaaa@3C2E@  و 15020Bq MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGymaiaaiw dacaaIWaGaaGOmaiaaicdacaaMc8UaamOqaiaadghaaaa@3CE9@  في الكيلوغرام الواحد.

    في اليابان، تعتبر السبانخ غير ملوثة باليود 131 المشع إذا كان نشاطه الإشعاعي لا يتعدى 2000Bq MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOmaiaaic dacaaIWaGaaGimaiaaykW7caWGcbGaamyCaaaa@3C29@  في الكيلوغرام الواحد كحد أقصى مسموح به .

    يهدف التمرين إلى دراسة التناقص الإشعاعي لعينة من السبانخ ملوثة باليود 131 المشع.

    معطيات :

    - عمر النصف لليود 131: t 1/2 =8jours MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiDamaaBa aaleaacaaIXaGaai4laiaaikdaaeqaaOGaeyypa0JaaGioaiaaykW7 caWGQbGaam4BaiaadwhacaWGYbGaam4Caaaa@416F@ .

      1u=931,5MeV. c 2 m( X 54 131 e )=130,8755u m( I 53 131 )=130,8770u m( e )=0,00055u MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaacaaMc8 UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaaGymaiaadwha cqGH9aqpcaaI5aGaaG4maiaaigdacaGGSaGaaGynaiaad2eacaWGLb GaamOvaiaac6cacaGGJbWaaWbaaSqabeaacqGHsislcaaIYaaaaOGa aGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaeyOeI0cabaGaamyBamaabmaabaWaa0raaS qaaiaaiwdacaaI0aaabaGaaGymaiaaiodacaaIXaaaaOGaamiwaiaa dwgaaiaawIcacaGLPaaacqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaaG4maiaaicdacaGGSa GaaGioaiaaiEdacaaI1aGaaGynaiaadwhacaaMc8UaaGPaVlaaykW7 cqGHsislaeaacaaMc8UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVlaad2gada qadaqaamaaDeaaleaacaaI1aGaaG4maaqaaiaaigdacaaIZaGaaGym aaaakiaadMeaaiaawIcacaGLPaaacqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaaG4maiaaic dacaGGSaGaaGioaiaaiEdacaaI3aGaaGimaiaadwhacaaMc8UaaGPa VlabgkHiTaqaaiaaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVl aaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVlaad2gadaqadaqaaiaadwgadaahaaWcbeqa aiabgkHiTaaaaOGaayjkaiaawMcaaiabg2da9iaaicdacaGGSaGaaG imaiaaicdacaaIWaGaaGynaiaaiwdacaWG1bGaaGPaVlaaykW7caaM c8UaeyOeI0caaaa@A245@  

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbeqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@4150@  دراسة نويدة اليود I 53 131 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0raaSqaai aaiwdacaaIZaaabaGaaGymaiaaiodacaaIXaaaaOGaamysaaaa@3AAC@  .

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 ينتج عن تفتت نويدة اليود I 53 131 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0raaSqaai aaiwdacaaIZaaabaGaaGymaiaaiodacaaIXaaaaOGaamysaaaa@3AAC@  تكون النويدة X 54 131 e MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaa0raaSqaai aaiwdacaaI0aaabaGaaGymaiaaiodacaaIXaaaaOGaamiwaiaadwga aaa@3BA6@ ، أكتب معادلة هذا التفتت وحدّ د طرازه.

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 أحسب ، بالوحدة MeV MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamytaiaadw gacaWGwbaaaa@388E@  ، الطاقة الناتجة عن تفتت نويدة واحدة من اليود 131.

    2 - دراسة عينة من السبانخ الملوثة باليود 131.

    أعطى قياس النشاط الإشعاعي لعينة من السبانخ ، مأخودة من مزرعة قريبة من مكان الحادث القيمة 8000Bq MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGioaiaaic dacaaIWaGaaGimaiaadkeacaWGXbaaaa@3AA4@  في الكيلوغرام الواحد عند لحظة نعتبرها أصل التواريخ .

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 أحسب N 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOtamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaaa@37B0@  عدد نويدات اليود 131 المشع المتواجدة في عينة السبانخ المدروسة عند أصل التواريخ .

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 حدّد ، بالوحدة (jour)، أصغر مدة زمنية لازمة لكي تصبح عينة السبانخ المدروسة غير ملوثة بمادة اليود 131.

    تمرين 3: الكهرباء (5 نقط)

    تحتوي مجموعة من الأجهزة السمعية على مكبرات للصوت . تشتمل هذه الأخيرة على دارات كهربائية من مكوناتها الأساسية الوشيعات .

    يهدف هذا التمرين إلى تحديد مميزتي وشيعة لمكبر للصوت باعتماد تجربتين مختلفتين.

    التجربة الأولى :

    يتضمن مكبر الصوت وشيعة معامل تحريضها L MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamitaaaa@36C8@  و مقاومتها r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOCaaaa@36EE@ . لتحديد هذين المقدارين المميزين للوشيعة تم إنجاز التركيب التجريبي المبين في الشكل 1 حيث E=12V MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyraiabg2 da9iaaigdacaaIYaGaamOvaaaa@3A19@  و R=42Ω MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOuaiabg2 da9iaaisdacaaIYaGaeuyQdCfaaa@3ADC@ .

     

    مباشرة بعد غلق الدارة ، نعاين بواسطة جهاز معلوماتي ملائم تطور التوتر u R MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyDamaaBa aaleaacaWGsbaabeaaaaa@37F4@  بدلالة الزمن. (الشكل 2)

     

    1 - بيّن أن التوتر u R MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyDamaaBa aaleaacaWGsbaabeaaaaa@37F4@   بين مربطي الموصل الأومي يحقق المعادلة التفاضلية: τ d u R dt + u R =A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiXdq3aaS aaaeaacaWGKbGaamyDamaaBaaaleaacaWGsbaabeaaaOqaaiaadsga caWG0baaaiabgUcaRiaadwhadaWgaaWcbaGaamOuaaqabaGccqGH9a qpcaWGbbaaaa@4153@  ، محددا

    تعبير كل من الثابتتين A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaaaa@36BD@  و τ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiXdqhaaa@37BC@  بدلالة برامترات الدارة.

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbeqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@4150@  تحقق أن للثابتة τ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiXdqhaaa@37BC@ بعدا زمنيا.

    3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbeqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@4150@  أوجد:

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  3 المقاومة الكهربائية r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOCaaaa@36EE@  للوشيعة.

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  3  معامل التحريض الذاتي L MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamitaaaa@36C8@  للوشيعة.

     

    التجربة الثانية :

    نركّب الوشيعة السابقة على التوالي مع مكثف مشحون كليا سعته C=0,2µF MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4qaiabg2 da9iaaicdacaGGSaGaaGOmaiaadwlacaWGgbaaaa@3BF0@  وموصل أومي مقاومته R'=200Ω MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOuaiaacE cacqGH9aqpcaaIYaGaaGimaiaaicdacqqHPoWvaaa@3C3D@  (الشكل3).

    بواسطة نفس العدة المعلوماتية ، نحصل على منحنى الشكل 4  الذي يمثل التوتر u C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyDamaaBa aaleaacaWGdbaabeaaaaa@37E5@  بين مربطي المكثف بدلالة الزمن.

     

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbeqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@4150@  أي نظام من الأنظمة الثلاثة للتذبذب يوافق المنحنى الممثل في الشكل 4؟

    2 -  أثبت المعادلة التفاضلية التي يحققها التوتر u C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyDamaaBa aaleaacaWGdbaabeaaaaa@37E5@  .

    3 - باعتبار أن شبه الدور T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamivaaaa@36D0@  يساوي الدور الخاص T 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamivamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaaa@37B6@  للمتذبذب LC MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamitaiaado eaaaa@3790@  ، تحقق من قيمة معامل التحريض الذاتي L MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamitaaaa@36C8@  للوشيعة المدروسة.

    4 - أوجد الطاقة المبددة في الدارة بمفعول جول بين اللحظتين t 0 =0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiDamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaakiabg2da9iaaicdaaaa@39A0@  و t 1 = 3 2 T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiDamaaBa aaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabg2da9maalaaabaGaaG4maaqaaiaaikda aaGaamivaaaa@3B49@  .

    5 - لتعويض الطاقة المبددة بمفعول جول ، نركّ ب على التوالي في الدارة السابقة (الشكل 3) مولدا كهربائيا يعطي توترا u G MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyDamaaBa aaleaacaWGhbaabeaaaaa@37E9@  يتناسب اطرادا مع شدة التيار، حيث u G (t)=k.i(t) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyDamaaBa aaleaacaWGhbaabeaakiaacIcacaWG0bGaaiykaiabg2da9iaadUga caGGUaGaamyAaiaacIcacaWG0bGaaiykaaaa@402D@  .

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  5 أثبت في هذه الحالة المعادلة التفاضلية التي تحققها الشحنة q(t) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyCaiaacI cacaWG0bGaaiykaaaa@393F@  للمكثف.

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  5 نضبط البرامتر k MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4Aaaaa@36E7@  على القيمة 208,4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOmaiaaic dacaaI4aGaaiilaiaaisdaaaa@399D@  للحصول على تذبذبات كهربائية جيبية . تحقق من قيمة المقاومة الكهربائية r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOCaaaa@36EE@  للوشيعة المدروسة.

    تمرين 4: الميكانيك (5,5 نقط)

    استعمل الإنسان الساعة منذ القديم لقياس الزمن ، فاخترع أنواعا مختلفة من الساعات مثل: الساعة الشمسية والساعة المائية و الساعة الرملية ... إلى أن جاء العالم هويجنس Huygens الذي صنع أول ساعة حائطية سنة 1657 ميلادية.

    يعتمد هذا النوع من الساعات في اشتغاله أساسا على رقاص الساعة الذي ننمذجه في هذه الدراسة بنواس وازن ينجز تذبذبات صغيرة حرة بدون احتكاك.

    يتكون النواس المدروس من عارضة متجانسة AB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaiaadk eaaaa@3784@  ، كتلتها m=0,203kg MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyBaiabg2 da9iaaicdacaGGSaGaaGOmaiaaicdacaaIZaGaam4AaiaadEgaaaa@3D68@  و طولها AB=l=1,5m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaiaadk eacqGH9aqpcaWGSbGaeyypa0JaaGymaiaacYcacaaI1aGaamyBaaaa @3D9D@  ، يمكنها الدوران في مستوى رأسي حول محور أفقي (Δ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiabfs 5aejaacMcaaaa@38B6@  ثابت يمر من طرفها A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaaaa@36BD@  (الشكل1).

     

    ·        ندرس حركة النواس في معلم مرتبط بمرجع أرضي نعتبره غاليليا .

    ·        نمعلم ، في كل لحظة ، موضع النواس بأفصوله الزاوي . θ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUdehaaa@37AD@  

    ·        نعطي عزم قصور العارضة بالنسبة للمحور (Δ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaiikaiabfs 5aejaacMcaaaa@38B6@  : J Δ = 1 3 .m. l 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamOsamaaBa aaleaacqqHuoaraeqaaOGaeyypa0ZaaSaaaeaacaaIXaaabaGaaG4m aaaacaGGUaGaamyBaiaac6cacaWGSbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaa aa@3F20@  

    ·        نقبل في حالة التذبذبات الصغيرة أن: sinθθ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaci4CaiaacM gacaGGUbGaeqiUdeNaeyisISRaeqiUdehaaa@3DEC@  حيث θ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUdehaaa@37AD@  بالراديان.

    ·        نرمز لشدة الثقالة بالحرف g MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4zaaaa@36E3@  .

    ·        نزيح النواس الوازن عن موضع توازنه المستقر بزاوية صغيرة θ m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUde3aaS baaSqaaiaad2gaaeqaaaaa@38CB@  في المنحى الموجب ثم نحرره بدون سرعة بدئية عند لحظة نعتبرها أصلا للتواريخ.

     

    1 - الدراسة التحريكية للنواس الوازن

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbeqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@4150@  1 بتطبيق العلاقة الأساسية للديناميك في حالة الدوران ، أثبت المعادلة التفاضلية لحركة النواس .

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 حدد طبيعة حركة النواس الوازن واكتب تعبير المعادلة الزمنية θ(t) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUdeNaai ikaiaadshacaGGPaaaaa@39FF@  بدلالة t MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiDaaaa@36F0@  و θ m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUde3aaS baaSqaaiaad2gaaeqaaaaa@38CB@  و الدور الخاص T 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamivamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaaa@37B6@  .

    3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 بين أن تعبير الدور الخاص T 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamivamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaaa@37B6@  لهذا النواس هو: T 0 =2π 2l 3g MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamivamaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaakiabg2da9iaaikdacqaHapaCdaGcaaqaamaa laaabaGaaGOmaiaadYgaaeaacaaIZaGaam4zaaaaaSqabaaaaa@3EC0@  .

    4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  1 ا حسب الطول L MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamitaaaa@36C8@  للنواس البسيط المتواقت للنواس الوازن المدروس .

     

    2 - الدراسة الطاقية للنواس الوازن

    نختار المستوى الأفقي المار من النقطة G 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4ramaaBa aaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaaa@37A9@  ، موضع مركزالقصور G MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaam4raaaa@36C3@  للعارضة AB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyqaiaadk eaaaa@3784@  عند التوازن المستقر، مرجعا لطاقة الوضع الثقالية ( E pp (0)=0 ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaeWaaeaaca WGfbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadchacaWGWbaabeaakiaacIcacaaIWaGaaiyk aiabg2da9iaaicdaaiaawIcacaGLPaaaaaa@3E3D@ .

    يمثل الشكل 2 منحنى تغير طاقة الوضع الثقالية E pp (θ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyramaaBa aaleaacaWGWbGaamiCaaqabaGccaGGOaGaeqiUdeNaaiykaaaa@3BF0@  للنواس المدروس في المجال [ θ m , θ m ] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaamWaaeaacq GHsislcqaH4oqCdaWgaaWcbaGaamyBaaqabaGccaGGSaGaeqiUde3a aSbaaSqaaiaad2gaaeqaaaGccaGLBbGaayzxaaaaaa@3F42@ .

     

    باستغلال المخطط الطاقي :

    1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 حدد قيمة الطاقة الميكانيكية E m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamyramaaBa aaleaacaWGTbaabeaaaaa@37DF@  للنواس.

    2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbgjxD0L 2zLjhimrfibjxyIL2yGutnGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwz YbItLDharuavP1wzZbItLDhis9wBH5garqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGGipv 0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9 pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaae GaciGaaiaabeqaamaaeaqbaaGcbaacbaqcLbCaqaaaaaaaaaWdbiaa =nbiaaa@414F@  2 أوجد القيمة المطلقة للسرعة الزاوية θ ˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGafqiUdeNbai aaaaa@37B6@  للنواس عند مروره من موضع أفصوله الزاوي θ= 2 3 θ m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaeqiUdeNaey ypa0ZaaSaaaeaacaaIYaaabaGaaG4maaaacqaH4oqCdaWgaaWcbaGa amyBaaqabaaaaa@3D10@  .